Scientific Article Are Pitbulls Dangerous? Megathread

KJ

Class Conscious
Joined
Jan 5, 2022
Messages
6,917
Reaction score
6,471
BC
฿4,774
Dividends
0

Maiming and death due to dog bites are uncommon but preventable tragedies. We postulated that patients admitted to a level I trauma center with dog bites would have severe injuries and that the gravest injuries would be those caused by pit bulls. We reviewed the medical records of patients admitted to our level I trauma center with dog bites during a 15-year period. We determined the demographic characteristics of the patients, their outcomes, and the breed and characteristics of the dogs that caused the injuries. Our Trauma and Emergency Surgery Services treated 228 patients with dog bite injuries; for 82 of those patients, the breed of dog involved was recorded (29 were injured by pit bulls). Compared with attacks by other breeds of dogs, attacks by pit bulls were associated with a higher median Injury Severity Scale score (4 vs. 1; P = 0.002), a higher risk of an admission Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8 or lower (17.2% vs. 0%; P = 0.006), higher median hospital charges ($10,500 vs. $7200; P = 0.003), and a higher risk of death (10.3% vs. 0%; P = 0.041). Attacks by pit bulls are associated with higher morbidity rates, higher hospital charges, and a higher risk of death than are attacks by other breeds of dogs. Strict regulation of pit bulls may substantially reduce the US mortality rates related to dog bites.


Results: A total of 475 dog bites were identified. The greatest proportion of dog bites occurred in the summer months (140, 30%). Pit-bull type was the most frequently implicated breed (27%). The majority of patients identified were female (295, 62%). The majority of bites occurred in the hands (264 cases, 56%). Bites occurring in the head and neck accounted for 11% of all injuries. Although 50% of injuries required only washout and dressing, 15 cases (3%) required a complex primary closure. The operating room was utilized in the reconstruction of eight defects (2%). There were four (1%) tendon repairs, one (0.2%) nerve repair, and one injury requiring a skin graft (0.2%). Three patients were admitted to hospital. We identified an overall infection rate of 10%.

Conclusions: Dog bites most commonly occurred in the hands and upper extremities, and carried an infection risk of approximately 10%. Large, muscular breeds were the most frequently implicated. The effectiveness of breed-specific legislation remains unclear, but educational programs for dog owners, children, and health care workers may help decrease the number and severity of attacks.


Conclusions: The results of this retrospective review are aligned mostly with the general trends found in previous national and global studies, supporting the notion that family dogs represent a more significant threat than often is realized and that, among the breeds identified, pit bulls are proportionally linked with more severe bite injuries. Our data further validate previous studies that note an increased risk of bites and bite severity in children younger than 5 years. In addition, our data show that bites to the head and neck occurred more frequently among children younger than 5 years than among older children, and that boys younger than 5 years were bitten more frequently than girls.


Dog bite injuries remain a common form of pediatric trauma. This single-institution study of 1616 consecutive dog bite injuries over 4 years revealed a much higher prevalence of dog bites as compared with other similar centers. Though inpatient admission was rare (9.8%), 58% of all patients required laceration repair, primarily in the emergency department. Infants were more than 4 times as likely to be bitten by the family dog and more than 6 times as likely to be bitten in the head/neck region. Children ≤5 years old were 62% more likely to require repair; and 5.5% of all patients required an operation. Pit bull bites were implicated in half of all surgeries performed and over 2.5 times as likely to bite in multiple anatomic locations as compared to other breeds. The relatively high regional prevalence and younger age of injured patients as compared with other centers is a topic of further study but should draw attention to interventions that can minimize child risk.
 
OP
KJ

KJ

Class Conscious
Joined
Jan 5, 2022
Messages
6,917
Reaction score
6,471
BC
฿4,774
Dividends
0

Results: Bite risk by breed from the literature review and bite severity by breed from our case series were combined to create a total bite risk plot. Injuries from Pitbull's and mixed breed dogs were both more frequent and more severe. This data is well-suited for a bubble plot showing bite risk on the x-axis, bite severity on the y-axis, and size of the bubble by number of cases. This creates a "risk to own" graphic for potential dog owners.

Conclusions: Breeds vary in both rates of biting and severity. The highest risk breeds had both a high rate of biting and caused significant tissue injury. Physical characteristics can also help determine risk for unknown or mixed dog breeds. Potential dog owners can utilize this data when assessing which breed to own.


Bite injuries to the head and neck region can result in facial disfigurement with distressing physical and psychological consequences. This article reviewed the causes and management of facial bite wounds due to dog bites. A PUBMED search of the National Library of Medicine from 1995 to December 2005 was conducted. Keywords used in the search were facial wound, bite wound, dog bite. The results showed that the risk factors for dog attacks include: school-aged children, male, households with dogs, male dogs and certain breeds (german shepherds, bull terriers, blue/red heelers, dobermans and rottwellers). Early management of such complex injuries usually guarantees satisfactory outcome. Most of the cases involve a known dog (friends, neighbors) and family pet. Although animal bites are not the most accounted children injuries, deaths may a result of these attacks. Antibiotic therapy is indicated for infected bite wounds and fresh wounds considered at risk for infection, such as extremely large wounds, large hematoma, and cat bites, that appear be more infected than dog bites. Tetanus immunization status and the risk of rabies infection should be routinely addressed in bite wound management. Prevention strategies should be considered for preventing dog bites.
 
OP
KJ

KJ

Class Conscious
Joined
Jan 5, 2022
Messages
6,917
Reaction score
6,471
BC
฿4,774
Dividends
0

Results: One-hundred and two patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 5.84 years, and 43.1% were preschool-aged (2-5 years). Parental presence was reported in 43.6% of cases, and most attacks occurred in the evening (46.8%). Injuries often involved the head-neck region (92.1%), and 72.5% were of major severity. Pet dogs were responsible for 42% of injuries, and pit bull was the most-identified breed (36.2%). Most injuries occurred while the child was at home (57.8%) and was petting or playing with the dog (28.4%). Intervention in the operating room was required in 34.3% of patients. Major injury was more likely to require operative intervention (p = 0.015) but was not associated with patient age, sex, pet status, or the need for hospitalization.

Conclusions: Preschool-aged children are more likely to be injured by dog bites, and dog bites can result in major injury to the head and neck region. Prevention efforts should focus on dog training, public education (children and adults), vigilant adult supervision, and a zero-tolerance policy.


Conclusion: Dog bites occur with higher frequency at younger ages, and head and neck injuries are more common in younger children. Pit bull bites are more common in adolescents and Shih-Tzu bites more common in younger children.


Conclusions: The authors' results indicate that German Shepherd and Pit Bull-type breeds account for the largest subset of pure breeds implicated in severe dog bites inflicted on humans in the medical literature. The role and complexity of mentioning breed in relation to human injuries are also discussed.


Dog bites have been well described and characterized in the pediatric population. Comparatively, dog-bite injuries in adults and the settings in which surgeons become involved are less studied. An electronic hospital database identified all patients 18 years or older who were treated for dog bites from 2010 to 2014. Demographics, injury information, intervention type, and payer source were collected. Socioeconomic analysis was performed using Geographic Information Systems mapping. A total of 189 adults presented to the emergency department with dog-bite-related injuries. The most common injury location was the hand (n = 62, 32.8%), followed by the head and neck (n = 36, 19.1%). Of the 189 patients, 33 adults (17.5%) were forwarded to a surgical subspecialist for repair. A head and neck injury was significantly more likely to be repaired by a surgical specialist (P = 0.011). The most common breed of dog identified was pit bull (n = 29, 47.5%). The majority of pit bull attacks involved the extremities (65.5%) compared to other breeds of dogs. Pit bull victims were noted to have a lower average annual income compared to other breed victims ($64,708 versus $75,004; P = 0.16). Annual income between intervention group and no intervention group was not significantly different (P = 0.26). This study is the 1st to perform a socioeconomic analysis in the adult dog-bite population and encourages the use of a surgical specialist in the setting of a head and neck bite.
 
OP
KJ

KJ

Class Conscious
Joined
Jan 5, 2022
Messages
6,917
Reaction score
6,471
BC
฿4,774
Dividends
0

Conclusions: The patients most likely to suffer dog bite injuries of the head and neck are children. Although a number of dog breeds were identified, the largest group were pit bull terriers, whose resultant injuries were more severe and resulted from unprovoked, unknown dogs. More severe injuries required a greater number of interventions, a greater number of inpatient physicians, and more outpatient follow-up encounters. Healthcare utilization and costs associated with dog bites warrant further investigation.


By combining data from the National Center for Health Statistics and computerized searching of news stories, we identified 157 dog bite-related fatalities that occurred in the United States from 1979 through 1988. Of the 157 deaths, 70% occurred among children who were less than 10 years of age. The death rate for neonates was almost 370 times that of adults who were 30 to 49 years of age. Pit bull breeds were involved in 42 (41.6%) of 101 deaths where dog breed was reported, almost three times more than German shepherds, the next most commonly reported breed. The proportion of deaths attributable to pit bulls increased from 20% in 1979 and 1980 to 62% in 1987 and 1988. Pit bull attacks were almost twice as likely to be caused by strays as attacks by other breeds. Extrapolated estimates suggest 183 to 204 dog bite-related fatalities from 1979 through 1988. To prevent such deaths, we recommend stronger animal control laws, public education regarding dog bites, and more responsible dog ownership. Parents and physicians should be aware that infants left alone with a dog may be at risk of death.


Results: We identified 109 dog bite-related fatalities, of which 57% were less than 10 years of age. The death rate for neonates was two orders of magnitude higher than for adults and the rate for children one order of magnitude higher. Of classifiable deaths, 22% involved an unrestrained dog off the owner's property, 18% involved a restrained dog on the owner's property, and 59% involved an unrestrained dog on the owner's property. Eleven attacks involved a sleeping infant; 19 dogs involved in fatal attacks had a prior history of aggression; and 19 of 20 classifiable deaths involved an unneutered dog. Pit bulls, the most commonly reported breed, were involved in 24 deaths; the next most commonly reported breeds were rottweilers (16) and German shepherds (10).

Conclusions: The dog bite problem should be reconceptualized as a largely preventable epidemic. Breed-specific approaches to the control of dog bites do not address the issue that many breeds are involved in the problem and that most of the factors contributing to dog bites are related to the level of responsibility exercised by dog owners. To prevent dog bite-related deaths and injuries, we recommend public education about responsible dog ownership and dog bite prevention, stronger animal control laws, better resources for enforcement of these laws, and better reporting of bites. Anticipatory guidance by pediatric health care providers should address dog bite prevention.
 
  • :)
  • :trolljak:
  • :yb:
  • :thumbsupsoyjak
  • :meds:
  • :cigar:
  • :soy4:
  • :babysoyjak:
  • :blacksoyjak:
  • :wepa:
  • :devioussoyjak:
  • :closedeyedsoyjak
  • :neutralsoyjak:
  • :songus:
  • :soy3:
  • :soyddit:
  • :itsover:
  • :tunes:
  • :jfl:
  • :wat:
  • :shrek:
  • :soy:
  • :sand:
  • :bateman:
  • :real:
  • :peat:
  • :qrn:
  • :feelsuhh:
  • :macaco:
  • :ohreally:
  • :rnc2:
  • :soy2:
  • ;)
  • :(
  • :mad:
  • :confused:
  • :cool:
  • :p
  • :D
  • :eek:
  • :oops:
  • :rolleyes:
  • o_O
  • :cautious:
  • :censored:
  • :cry:
  • :love:
  • :LOL:
  • :ROFLMAO:
  • :sick:
  • :sleep:
  • :sneaky:
  • (y)
  • (n)
  • :unsure:
  • :whistle:
  • :coffee:
  • :giggle:
  • :alien:
  • :devilish:
  • :geek:
  • :poop:
  • :ninja:

Users who are viewing this thread

Top